All this belonged to the dynasty it defended the interests not of Spain but of the Habsburgs The nation was something else he stated in an interview in 2015.
The first book he published was his thesis on the communal revolution the uprising against Carlos V between 1520 and 1522 which was published in Spain in 1977
Then there would be works on the Catholic Monarchs Carlos V Teresa de Ávila or Cisneros But he not only investigated the historical protagonists but also aspects of the society of that time such as the presence of the Jews in the Peninsula
History of a tragedy was the unequivocal title of the book that he dedicated to his expulsion in 1492 the activity of the Inquisition or collateral effects such as the black legend to which he dedicated an essay that investigated the causes of a phenomenon that emerged in the 16th century that continues to arouse heated controversies even today
It always seemed to me something exaggerated that it came from prejudices that had to be banished I got into studying colonization and the Inquisition and concluded that it was not specific to Spain
The colonizations of France and England in the 19th century are not rosy Nor does any nation have a monopoly on religious intolerance we think about what happened in France Germany or England pointed out the historian who chaired the University of Bordeaux III between 1978 and 1983
Awarded with multiple distinctions in France and Spain he had among others the Grand Cross of the Order of Alfonso X El Sabio and the Officer of the French Legion of Honor he belonged to several academies in Spain and Portugal Between 1989 and 1996 he directed the Casa de Velázquez
His last book published in Spain was the biography of Cardinal Cisneros within the Eminent Spanish collection coedited by the Taurus publishing house and the Juan March Foundation
As a sign of its close relationship with Spain the Villalar de los Comuneros City Council has decreed two days of official mourning after learning of the death of a historian who was closely linked to the town of Valladolid where it has a street with his name.